Baby-Led-Weaning (BLW) from maternal perspective: Polish experience
AbstractBackground. Baby-Led-Weaning (BLW) is increasingly popular as a complementary feeding practice although its safety, limitations and advantages have not been widely studied as yet. Material and Methods. The present survey employed an anonymous online questionnaire to learn from experience (their concerns, perceived advantages, disadvantages, and overall satisfaction) of Polish mothers (n = 373) that adopted BLW.Results. Most of surveyed mothers adopting BLW had tertiary education and good economic status, and inhabited urban areas. Non-scientific online resources were the most important source of knowledge on BLW; none of surveyed mentioned healthcare professionals as having played any role in this respect. The risk of choking was the greatest concern expressed while considering the BLW prospect. At least one choking event during B:W adoption was reported by 55.6%, mostly involving an apple, occurring at beginning of introduction, and perceived as non-serious. The BLW advantages included: (i) promotion of infant self-reliance, motor skills, biting and chewing of food and speech), sensory learning of food, and (ii) motivation to eat family meals and make more healthier dietary choices. The greatest disadvantage was an in-house mess. Nearly all mothers recommended the BLW adoption to other caregivers.Conclusion. In view of the scarcity of data on this feeding practice, the maternal experience demonstrated in the present study may offer valuable information for health professionals as well as future caregivers who consider the adoption of BLW to be a complementary feeding practice.
Koplin JJ, Allen K. Optimal timing for solids introduction - why are the guidelines always changing? Clin Exp Allergy. 2013;43:826–834.
United Nations Children’s Fund. Infant and young child feeding, Programming guide, UNICEF: New York, NY, 2011.
World Health Organization. Infant and young child feeding. Model chapter for medical students and allied health professional. WHO Press: Geneva, 2009.
Lanigan JA, Bishop J, Kimber AC, Morgan J. Systematic review concerning the age of introduction of complementary foods to the healthy full-term infant. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011;55:309–320.
Fiocchi A, Assa'ad A, Bahna S. Adverse Reactions to Foods Committee, American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. Food allergy and the introduction of solid foods to infants: a consensus document. Adverse Reactions to Foods Committee, American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. Annal Allerg Asthma Immunol. 2006;97:10–20.
Rapley G, Murkett T. Baby Led Weaning: the essential guide to introducing solid foods and helping your baby to grow up a happy and confident eater. Experiment Publishing: New York, NY, 2005.
Cameron SL, Heath AL, Taylor RW. How feasible is Baby-led Weaning as an approach to infant feeding? A review of the evidence. Nutrients. 2012;4:1575–1609.
Caroli M, Mele RM, Tomaselli MA, Cammisa M, Longo F, Attolini, E. Complementary feeding patterns in Europe with a special focus on Italy. Nutr Metabol Cardiovasc Dis. 2012;22:813–818.
Rapley G. Baby-led weaning: transitioning to solid foods at the baby's own pace. Community Practitioner. 2011;84:20–23.
Daniels L, Heath AL, Williams SM, Cameron SL, Fleming EA, Taylor BJ, Wheeler BJ, Gibson RS, Taylor RW. Baby-Led Introduction to SolidS (BLISS) study: a randomised controlled trial of a baby-led approach to complementary feeding. BMC Pediatrics. 2015;15:179.
Fangupo LJ, Heath AM, Williams SM, Erickson WLW, Morison BJ, Fleming EA, Taylor BJ, Wheeler BJ, Taylor RW. A Baby-Led Approach to Eating Solids and Risk of Choking. Pediatrics. 2016;138. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016–0772
Beal JA. Baby-Led Weaning. MCN: Am J Maternal/Child Nursing. 2016;41:373.
Sachs M. Baby-led weaning and current UK recommendations--are they compatible? Maternal Child Nutr. 2011;7:1–2.
Wright CM, Cameron K, Tsiaka M, Parkinson KN. Is baby-led weaning feasible? When do babies first reach out for and eat finger foods? Maternal Child Nutr. 2011;7:27–33.
Brown A, Lee M. An exploration of experiences of mothers following a baby-led weaning style: developmental readiness for complementary foods. Maternal Child Nutr. 2013;9:233–243.
Cameron SL, Heath AL, Taylor RW. Healthcare professionals' and mothers' knowledge of, attitudes to and experiences with, Baby-Led Weaning: a content analysis study. BMJ Open. 2012;2. DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2012–001542.
D'Andrea E, Jenkins K, Mathews M, Roebothan B. Baby-led Weaning: A Preliminary Investigation. Can J Diet Pract Res. 2016;77:72–77.
Morison BJ, Taylor RW, Haszard JJ, Schramm CJ, Williams EL, Fangupo LJ, Fleming EA, Luciano A, Heath AL. How different are baby-led weaning and conventional complementary feeding? A cross-sectional study of infants aged 6–8 months. BMJ Open. 2016;6. DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015–010665.
Arden MA, Abbott RL. Experiences of baby-led weaning: trust, control and renegotiation. Maternal Child Nutr. 2015;11:829–844.
Rzymski P, Królczyk A. Attitudes toward genetically modified organisms in Poland: to GMO or not to GMO? Food Secur. 2016;8:689–697.
Pettigrew S, Tarabashkina L, Roberts M, Quester P, Chapman K, Miller C. The effects of television and Internet food advertising on parents and children. Public Health Nutr. 2013;16:2205–2212.
Abel S, Park J, Tipene-Leach D, Finau S, Lennan, M. Infant care practices in New Zealand: a cross-cultural qualitative study. Soc Sci Med. 2001;53:1135–1148.
Egyir BK, Ramsay SA, Bilderback B, Safaii S. Complementary Feeding Practices of Mothers and Their Perceived Impacts on Young Children: Findings from KEEA District of Ghana. Maternal Child Nutr. 2016;20:1886–1894,
Townsend E, Pitchford NJ. Baby knows best? The impact of weaning style on food preferences and body mass index in early childhood in a case–controlled sample. BMJ Open. 2012;2(1):e000298.
Brown A, Lee MD. Early influences on child satiety-responsiveness: the role of weaning style. Pediatr Obes. 2015;10:57–66.
Farajian P, Risvas G, Panagiotakos DB, Zampelas A. Food sources of free sugars in children's diet and identification of lifestyle patterns associated with free sugars intake: the GRECO (Greek Childhood Obesity) study. Public Health Nutr. 2016;19:2326–2335.
Eisenberg ME, Olson RE, Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Bearinger LH. Correlations between family meals and psychosocial well-being among adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adoles Med. 2004;158:792–796.
Neumark-Sztainer D, Larson N, Fulkerson JA, Eisenberg ME, Story M. Family meals and adolescents: what have we learned from Project EAT (Eating Among Teens)? Public Health Nutr. 2010;13:1113–1121.
Mestdag I, Vandeweyer J. Where has family time gone? In search of joint family activities and the role of the family meal in 1966 and 1999. J Family Hist. 2005;30:304–323.
Moag-Stahlberg A. The state of family nutrition and physical activity: are we making progress? J Acad Nutr Diet. 2011;111:1–30.
Flensborg-Madsen T, Mortensen EL. Predictors of motor developmental milestones during the first year of life. Eur J Pediatr. 2017;176:109–119.